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Sprayer Tutorial

Sprayers are the most common pesticide application equipment. They are standard equipment for nearly every pesticide applicator and are used in every type of pest control operation. Sprayers range in size and complexity from simple, hand-held models to intricate machines weighing several tons.

Hand Sprayers

Hand sprayers are often used to apply small quantities of pesticides. They can be used in structures, and they can be used outside for spot treatments or in hard-to-reach areas. Most operate on compressed air supplied by a hand pump.

Advantages:

  • simple to operate,
  • easy to clean and store.

 

Limitations:

  • pressure and output rate fluctuate,
  • often provide too little agitation to keep wettable powders in suspension; must be shaken frequently.

 

Pressurized can (aerosol sprayer)

This type of sprayer consists of a sealed container of compressed gas and pesticides. The pesticide is driven through an aerosol-producing nozzle when the valve is activated. Pressurized cans usually have a capacity of less than 1 quart and are not reusable. Larger reusable cylinders are available for some specialty agricultural uses.

 

Trigger pump sprayer

With trigger pump sprayers, the pesticide is not packaged under pressure. Instead, the pesticide and diluent are forced through the nozzle by pressure created when the trigger is squeezed. The capacity of trigger pump sprayers ranges from 1 pint to 1 gallon.

 

Hose-end sprayer

This device causes a fixed rate of pesticide to mix with the water flowing through the hose to which it is attached. The mixture is expelled through a high-volume nozzle. These sprayers usually hold no more than 1 quart of concentrated pesticide, but because the concentrate mixes with the water, they may deliver 20 gallons or more of finished spray solution per fill.

 

Push-pull hand pump sprayer

This type of sprayer depends on a hand-operated plunger that forces air out of a cylinder, creating a vacuum at the top of a siphon tube. The suction draws pesticide from a small tank and forces it out with the air flow. Capacity is usually 1 quart or less.

 

Compressed air sprayer

This is usually a hand-carried sprayer that operates under pressure created by a self-contained manual pump. The air in the tank is compressed by the pump. The compressed air forces liquid pesticide through the hose and nozzle whenever the control valve is opened. A few types of these sprayers use carbon dioxide cartridges instead of a hand pump for compression. Capacity is usually 1/2 to 3 gallons.

 

Bucket or trombone sprayer

These sprayers involve a double-action hydraulic pump, which is operated with a push-pull motion. The pesticide is sucked into the cylinder and pushed out through the hose and nozzle with the return stroke. Pressures up to 150 psi can be generated. The separate tank often consists of a bucket with a capacity of 5 gallons or less.

 

Backpack (knapsack) sprayer

One type of backpack sprayer is a compressed air sprayer with a harness that allows it to be carried on the operator's back.

Another type of backpack sprayer has a hand-operated hydraulic pump that forces liquid pesticide through a hose and one or more nozzles. The pump is usually activated by moving a lever. A mechanical agitator plate may be attached to the pump plunger. Some of these sprayers can generate pressures of 100 pounds per square inch (psi) or more. Capacity of both these types of backpack sprayers is usually 5 gallons or less.

 

Wheelbarrow sprayer

Wheelbarrow sprayers are similar to backpack sprayers, but have a larger tank and longer hose line. The tank is mounted on a wheeled cart for easy transport.The capacity of these sprayers is usually less than 25 gallons.

 

Hand Pump Soil Injector

A small hand operated sprayer used to force liquid through a spike type nozzle device into the soil around a tree or other area. The capacity of the sprayer is usually less than a gallon of spray liquid. The tank is designed to hold a liquid slurry mixture and the operator pumps a handle forcing the liquid through the device into the ground.

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