In the United States pest and pesticides were regulated as early as the late 19th century. Similar laws were passed in Canada and Europe. This gallery documents some of these laws.
1892 Pollinator Protection Law - Ontario (Canada)
In 1892, the Ontario legislature passed an act forbidding spraying or sprinkling fruit trees during bloom.
The act prevented growers from spraying trees with Paris green and other substances poisonous to honey bees.This was documented by C. V. Riley in the USDA publication, "Insect Life" ( Vol. V., No. 4.,p. 272,1893). Riley indicated the topic of injury by insecticides had been presented to the Association of Economic Entomologists in their fourth annual meeting (Aug. 15, 1892, Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY, "Spraying with Arsenites vs. Bees", published in Insect Life, Vol. V, No. 2., p 121-122., Nov. 1892.) and the reader, Mr. F. M. Webster (Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooster), had failed to prove that bees were injured by such spraying. Riley further stated the legislation was unnecessary since it wasn't desirable to spray trees in bloom anyway.
Of course we know today that honey bees can be injured by insecticide application during bloom and that most pesticide label directions warn applicators not to spray when pollinators are active (thus making this type of application illegal since ignoring label directions is a violation of US federal law).
If you're interested in preserving the history of
Virginia's agricultural experiment station, the memory of its
founders, the accomplishments of their era, the Alwood legacy through scholarship and outreach, and protecting the Alwood Oak, you can now give a tax-deductible gift to the "William Bradford Alwood
To give online, please go directly to the online form. On the online form, please make sure, under "Gift Information," to designate your donation on the line listed as "Other Designation," then type in the amount and fund name:"Alwood Fund 875250"
Giving by Check:
Checks should be written to the "Virginia Tech Foundation" with a memo to the"Alwood Fund 875250." Please mail them to Vernon Meacham at the address below.
Did you know that you can make a pledge that will allow you to spread your donation in smaller payments over multiple years (up to five)? For most people, this is the way to give - it enables you to make a significant donation without a major impact on your budget.
For more information on giving, or to mail checks, please contact:
Vernon B. Meacham, Director of Development, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University Development (0402), 216-D Hutcheson Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 - (540) 231-3071 - firstname.lastname@example.org
For more information about this project, please contact:
Dr. Michael J. Weaver, Professor, Department of Entomology (0409), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061- (540) 231-6543 - email@example.com
Dedicate and preserve the Alwood Oak (large bur oak in front of Burruss Hall planted by Professor Alwood ~1895) - dedicated 10/14/11; preservation ongoing.
Preserve the history/archives of the station history, college, Virginia agriculture, and Alwood era (1859 to 1946); ongoing.
Promote scholarship and learning in the spirit of Professor Alwood's accomplishments in research, teaching and outreach; ongoing. Alwood Extension Award for entomology graduate students was initiated in September 2013. First awards given on February 26, 2014.
*In a letter to Professor Alwood (February 3, 1927), VPI President Julian Burruss noted that,"The splendid service which you rendered this institution will ever
be remembered and it is my hope that some day your name will be honored
in some permanent manner, which will remain here for all time to let
those who come after us know of your part in the making of this
institution." The plaza (to be erected at the site of the original experiment station) will
provide a place to sit, relax, enjoy the Alwood Oak,, and learn the history of
the station and its founders.