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Early Days of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station

Established by the Virginia General Assembly in 1886, the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was located on the 283 acre campus of the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College (VAMC) (later named Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI), and today - Virginia Tech).

Fruit Research and Demonstration Orchard

The VPI station was known for its tremendous fruit variety testing orchard in Blacksburg. The orchard was started in 1887 and was built into a world class site through the hard work of William B. Alwood and his assistants, Harvey L. Price and Richard H. Price. The latter Price left VPI and took a position at Texas A&M as professor of horticulture. Harvey Price was promoted from assistant to Assistant Professor of Horticulture. He eventually headed the horticulture department and became dean of the agricultural college. After Alwood left, Price became the primary protector and caretaker of the orchard.

Bulletin No. 2 - Oct. 1889 - W. B. Alwood...

The experimental orchard thus far consists of a selection of varieties of the following orchard fruits: apples, quinces, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, and some miscellaneous fruits of doubtful value.

 

The plot of land selected for this work comprises some fifteen acres, having a gentle slope to the west and south. It is a rather stiff upland clay, showing in some sections a slight intermixture of gravel, and is underlaid by a blue limestone, which crops out here and there, being at no place far below the surface. With the exception of one small section, the natural surface drainage of the whole plot is good. A fine brook of spring water flows parallel with the west line of the orchard and but a few yards distant from the outside row of trees.

 

The orchard has been thus far planted with a single purpose in view, viz: to test varieties in regard to character of tree and quality of fruit. It is intended in the future to undertake special work of several kinds.

 

The stock, though partly secured from nurserymen in several sections of the country, was chiefly furnished by home dealers, thus affording some opportunity for comparisons of a practical nature. It was partly purchased in the fall of 1888, and heeled in over winter; but the greater portion was ordered last spring. All of it was planted out in excellent condition during the first two weeks of April. The ground was at that time quite dry, but frequent rains soon followed, and the trees started for most part at once, and have made a good growth. As far as can be determined at present there has been no loss to speak of, except in the case of the peaches, and this was due principally to yellows, the stock being already infected with this disease when received.

 

The apple trees were set 40 by 40 feet; between the rows of one section of these the peaches, nectarines and apricots are planted. This arrangement places the trees twenty feet apart each way, thus giving ample room for the peaches, etc., to grow and bear, for ten years or longer, before they will interfere with the growth of the apple trees.

 

General List of Orchard Fruits  (261 varieties)

Apples - Summer Varieties (17)

American Summer Fanny Sweet Bough
Benoni Horse Tetofsky
Carolina June May Washington
Chenango Oldenburg Williams
Early Harvest Red Astrachan Yellow Transparent
Early Ripe Summer Rose  

 

Apples - Autumn Varieties (18)

Baltzby Jersey Sweet Porter
Bonum Keswick Codlin Primate
Fall Orange Lady Henniker Red Bietigheimer
Fall Pippin Maiden's Blush Rome Beauty
Gravenstein Peach Pond Sweet Sops of Wine
Jefferis Plumb's Cider White Doctor

 

Apple - Winter Varieties (71)

Alexander Limber Twig Shockley
Arkansas Black Mann Smith's Cider
Albemarle Pippin* Mason's Stranger Smokehouse
Baldwin Mother Stark
Beauty of Kent Mt. Boomer Stevenson's Winter
Belle de Boskoop Missouri Pippin Stump

Bentley's Sweet Nansemond Swaar
Berry Red Nashes' Seedling Talman Sweet
Black Twig Nashville Mammoth Tewksbury Winter
Buckingham Nero Tompkins King
Bullok's Pippin Newton Pippin Via's Seedling
Cannon Pearmain Nickajack Wagener
Delaware Red Winter Northern Spy Wealthy
Edgar Red Streak Ortley Westfield Seek-no-Further
Fameuse Peck's Pleasant White Pippin
Gano Pilot White Winter Pearmain
Gideon Rawle's Genet Willow Twig
Grimes Golden Rebel Winesap
Jonathan R. L. Twig Wolf River
Jumbo Ridge Pippin Yates
Kaign's Spitzenburg Roxbury Russet Yellow Bellefleur
Lankford's Seedling R. I. Greening York Imperial
Lawyer Seek No Further  
L. W. Pearmain Sharp's Winter  


Apples - Crab (11)

Blushing Maid Lake Yellow Red Siberian
English Crab Maiden's Blush Soulard
Hyslop Montreal Beauty Transcendent

Lady Elgin

Quaker Beauty  

 

Quinces (4)

Angers Apple Champion
Rea

 

Pears - Summer (9)

Clapp's Favorite, S. D. Manning's Elizabeth, D. Souvenir du Congres, S.
Lawson, D. Margaret, D. Summer Doyenne, S.
Le Conte, S. Osband's Summer, D. Tyson, S. D.

Pears - Autumn (17)

Anjou, S. Clairgeau,S. Rutter, D.
Bartlett, S. Duchess Precoce, D. Seckel, D.
Belle Lucrative, D. Flemish Beauty, S. Sheldon, S.
Bose, S. Howell, D. Superfin, D.
Boussock, S. Kieffer,S. White Doyenne, D.
Buffum, D Louise Bonne of Jersey, D.  

 

Pears - Winter (6)

Doyenne d'Aleneon, D. Josephine of Malines, S. Pound, S.
Easter Buerre, S. D. Lawrence, S. D. Vicar, D.

 

Peaches (43)

Albright's Winter Geo. the Fourth Reeve's Favorite
Alexander's Early Governor Farland Ringold Cling
Amsden Grosse Mignonne Rivers
Beer's Smock Hale's Early Saway
Briggs' May Heath Cling Shaw's Mammoth
Butler's Lat Henrietta Stump the World
Bentley's Sweet Lady Ingold Susquehanna
Christiana Late Red Rareripe Tillotson
Crawford's Early Louis Ward's Late
Crawford's Late Mary's Favorite Waterloo
Crimson Beauty Mountain Rose Wheatland
Early Silver Morris' White Wilder
Early York Mrs. Brett Wonderful
Elberta Oldmixon Free Yellow St. John
Piequett's Late Foster  

 

Plums (33)

Bavay Kelsey's Japan Reine Claude
Blackman Lombard Robinson
Botan Lone Star Seedling No. 1
Bradshaw McLaughlin Seedling No. 2
Bunker Hill Marianna Shropshire Damson
German Prune Ogan Washington
Geuii Pond's Seedling Wayland
Golden Drop Prince Englebert Weaver
Imperial Gage Prune of Agen Wild Goose
Italian Prune Prunus Simonii Wooton
Jefferson Quackenboss Yellow Egg

 

Apricots (4)

Large Early 
Peach  Moorpark
Turkey


 

Nectarines (5)

Boston

Elruge Victoria
Downton Stanwick


Cherries (20)

Black Tartarian Louis Phillippe Reine Hortense
Coe's Transparent May Duke Rockport
Early Purple Mezel Schmidt's Bigarreau
Early Richmond Montmorency Large Sparhawk's Honey
Elton Napoleon Tartarian
Gov. Wood Olivet Tradescant
Kirtland's Mary Ostheim

 

Persimmons, Japanese (3)

Goshawk  Tenanaski 
Zenzi

 

Progress... Bulletin No. 128 - September 1901...

The station orchards continued to expand. In a bulletin (No. 128, dated September, 1901) submitted on September 12, 1902, Alwood reported that there were 347 varieties of apple, 23 varieties of crab apples, 42 varieties of pear, and four varieties of quince. Alwood expanded the collection when he added 53 scions of apple varieties from his trip to Europe in 1900. A list of varieties included:

 

List of Pome Fruits (by serial number)

APPLES


  1. Accession 3 (Virginia seedlings) - Cions  from J. L. Babcock, Norfolk, VA. Proved to be two sorts; one fruited slightly; promising; early autumn.
  2. Accession 212 (Virginia seedlings) - Cions from O. O. Gwathmey, Aylett, VA. Not fruited.
  3. Accession 149 (Virginia seedlings) - Cions received through mail, without name of sender, marked "Baker Grafts." Not fruited.
  4. Accession 356 (Virginia seedlings) - Cions from W. B. Dodge, Stuart's Draft, VA. Not fruited.
  5. Accession 357a (Virginia seedlings) - Cions from F. A. Brown, Mt. Sidney, VA. Not fruited.
  6. Accession 403 - Cions marked "C. Lot, " from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  7. Accession 404 - Cions marked "Z. 26 Lot, " from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  8. Accession 405 - Cions marked "J. M.," from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  9. Accession 406 - Cions marked "V. 22," from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  10. Accession 408 - Cions marked "J. G. B.," from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  11. Accession 409 - Cions marked "B. Q.," from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  12. Accession 410 - Cions marked "A. B.," from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, MO. Not fruited.
  13. Akers - Cions Swedish apple, United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, Serial No. 21,229. Not fruited.
  14. Alabama (Pippin) - Cions from United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, Serial No. 21,229. Not fruited.
  15. Albemarle Pippin (Yellow Newtown) - Southern form of this well known variety adapted only to special soils.
  16. Ambrette - Cions of French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  17. Amere-de-Berthecourt - Cions of French Cider apple; two, sources - Division of Pomology, also collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  18. 'Amere-de-Surville - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  19. American Summer - (American seedling) - Ripens in mid-summer; good bearer, of fair quality.
  20. Argile Grises - Cions of French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  21. Arkansas (Black Twig) (Arkansas) - New and promising market variety; good bearer and excellent market qualities.
  22. Arkansas Beauty - An Arkansas seedling; E. J. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  23. Arkansas Black - An Arkansas seedling; E. J. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  24. Arkansas Red - An Arkansas seedling; E. J. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  25. Astrachan Spaneholms (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, Serial No. 21,217. Not fruited.
  26. Autumn Tart - Cions from New South Wales, Australia, through United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,705. Not fruited.
  27. Avera - Cions Hungarian apple, from United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  28. Baldwin - Massachusetts seedling; well known winter variety in North; ripens in late autumn; excellent variety.
  29. Balough - Trees of Hungarian apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  30. Baltzby - Maryland seedling; large showy apple, but rather poor in quality; good bearer.
  31. Barbaric - Trees of French Cider apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  32. Batingme - Cions Hungarian apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology.
  33. Battullen - Cions and trees of Hungarian apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  34. Battyani - Trees of Hungarian apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  35. Bedan des Parts - Cions French Cider apple; collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  36. Beitigheimer (Germany) - Has fruited sparingly; fruit large and of fair quality; drops before mature.
  37. Belle de Boskoop (Russian) - Large, irregular russet fruit of fair quality, but has fruited sparingly.
  38. Belmont (Pennsylvania) - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL. Not fruited.
  39. Ben Davis (Kentucky?) - Well known market variety; productive, but small size here.
  40. Benninger - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  41. Bennorton - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  42. Benoni (Massachusetts) - Summer apple; fairly productive; large fruit, good quality.
  43. Bentley (Virginia seedling) - Late winter variety; very susceptible to bitter rot. Not recommended.
  44. Benton (Iowa) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  45. Berry Red - Origins unknown; bought of Franklin, Davis & Co. Not fruited.
  46. Bethlemite (Ohio?) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  47. BImet Blanc - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  48. Binet Rouge - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  49. Binet Violet - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  50. Bjorkvics - Cions Swedish apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,218. Not fruited.
  51. Blanc Mollet - Trees of French Cider apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology; also collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  52. Bloomfield - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  53. Bonne-de-Frieulle - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  54. Bonum (North Carolina seedling) - Productive fall variety; fruit small, but of good quality.
  55. Bough (Sweet) (American) - Early variety, of good quality, but not a heavy bearer.
  56. Boutteville - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  57. Brackett (American seedling) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,253. Not fruited.
  58. Bramtot - French Cider apple; trees from United States Department of Agriculture; also cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  59. Broad-Leaved Norman - English Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  60. Brown Mammoth - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  61. Bryant (Virginia seedling) - Cions from H. H. Garrett, Herndon, VA. Fruited; fine quality; not productive.
  62. Buckingham (Virginia seedling) - Old well known variety; fall and early winter; productive and of good quality.
  63. Buda Summer - Hungarian apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  64. Bullock's Pippin (New Jersey) - Old variety, ripening in fall and early winter; small size, but fine quality.
  65. Callie Wood (Virginia seedling) - J. A. Francis, Salem, VA. Not fruited.
  66. Cannon (North Carolina) - An old winter variety; productive; keeps well, but of poor quality.
  67. Capp Mammoth - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL; summer and fall; promising.
  68. Carlough - Hungarian apple; cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  69. Catline (Delaware) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  70. Celeste - Hungarian apple; United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  71. Chase No. 1 (Virginia seedling) - Cions from G. G. Chase, Cloverdale, VA. Not fruited.
  72. Chase No. 2 (Virginia seedling) - Cions from G. G. Chase, Cloverdale, VA. Not fruited.
  73. Chatastee (New South Wales, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,707. Not fruited.
  74. Chattahoochee (Georgia) - Tree, E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  75. Chenango (New York) - Old variety; August and September; excellent for cooking, but subject to twig blight.
  76. Cillagos - Hungarian apple; Cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  77. Cliff's Seedling (Victoria, Australia) - United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,708. Not fruited.
  78. Coffelt (Arkansas) - One tree, E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  79. Coffelt Beauty (Arkansas) - One tree, E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  80. Coles Rymer (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,709. Not fruited.
  81. Colton Early - Tree from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL. Not fruited.
  82. Crawford - One tree from E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  83. Crop - Cions from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL. Not fruited.
  84. Cumberland (Pennsylvania) - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL. Fuited sparingly; needs further testing.
  85. D'Avroles - French Cider apple; cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  86. Daru - Hungarian apple; cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  87. Day (Maine) - Cions R. N. Day & Son, Tekamah, NE. Not fruited.
  88. Dickey - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  89. Dickskill (Long Island) - Old orchard Experiment Station grounds; Not fruited in new plantation.
  90. Doctor Briggs (Kentucky) - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL. Not fruited.
  91. Doctor Fulcher (Kentucky) - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL Not fruited.
  92. des Domaines - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  93. Doux Amere Gris - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  94. Doux-au-Gobe - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  95. Doux Bedan - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  96. Doux-gris-Orange - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  97. Doux Normandie - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  98. Early Harvest (American seedling) - Fine early variety; home and market.
  99. Edgar Red Streak - Unknown origin; fairly productive; quality only fair.
  100. Early Richmond (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  101. Early Ripe (Pennsylvania) - Productive and of excellent quality; best early; home and market.
  102. Emperor Alexander (Russian) - Early winter; fine, large red fruit, of fairly good quality.
  103. Eper - Hungarian apple; tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  104. Eureka - Large, showy fruit, ripening in fall and early winter; poor quality.
  105. Evening Party (Pennsylvania) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. No. 21,219. Not fruited.
  106. Everbearing (Virginia?) - Cions E. J. Sword, Chandler, VA. Not fruited.
  107. Fajero - Swedish apple; Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. No. 21,219. Not fruited.
  108. Fall Beauty (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,713. Not fruited.
  109. Fall Orange (Massachusetts) - A good late summer variety for culinary use, home and market.
  110. Fall Pippin (America) - Late autumn variety of high quality, highly prized for culinary use and for dessert; not a heavy bearer.
  111. Fameuse (French ?) - This variety is of good quality and a long keeper, but not prolific.
  112. Fanny (Pennsylvania) - Good bearer; fruit fair quality, ripening September; fine for canning.
  113. Frequin Audievre - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  114. Frequin Lajoie - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  115. Frequin Rouge - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  116. Frequin Tardif - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  117. Fox Whelp - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  118. Frosakers (Swedish) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. No. 21,220. Not fruited.
  119. Galopin - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  120. Gano (Tennessee) - Good winter apple, of Ben Davis type larger and more colored than the latter.
  121. Gelber Richards (Germany) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  122. Gideon (Minnesota) - Our stock apparently same as Oldenburg.
  123. Gilpin (Virginia) - Cions C. D. Wenger, Dayton, VA. Not fruited here, but is an old winter variety.
  124. Gimmersta (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,221. Not fruited.
  125. Girard - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  126. Godard - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  127. Golden Queen (New South Wales, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,717. Not fruited.
  128. Gra Milan - Tree, E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  129. Granny Smith (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,718. Not fruited.
  130. Gravenstein (Germany) - Fairly productive; excellent for culinary purposes; August and September.
  131. Great Bearer (American) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  132. Great Landford - English cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  133. Grimes Favorite - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  134. Grimes Golden (Virginia) - Old and well known dessert sort; good bearer fo fine quality; fall and early winter.
  135. Grise Dieppois - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  136. Grisette d' Armagnac - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  137. Hampus (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,222. Not fruited.
  138. Hartley (American) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,410. Not fruited.
  139. Hatcher - Tree from E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fruited.
  140. Henopin - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  141. Hermit (Virginia seedling) - Trees W. T. Monroe, Wellington, VA. Not fruited.
  142. Hills (?) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  143. Horse (North Carolina) - Late fall variety, without special merit.
  144. Hubbardston (Massachusetts) - Large, showy apple, rather coarse in quality, late autumn.
  145. Hugh's No. 2 (Virginia?) - Cions from G. Underhill, Fork Union, VA. Not fruited.
  146. Ingram (Missouri) - Received from E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Needs further testing.
  147. Irish Peach (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,719. Not fruited.
  148. Ivanhoe (Virginia) - Trees from E. W. Robertson, Crozet, VA; fairly productive and late keeper; quality only fair.
  149. Jackson of Delaware - Origin? Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  150. Jaunet-pointu (France) - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  151. Jefferis (Pennsylvania) - Summer variety of fine quality; excellent desert; home use.
  152. Jersey Sweet (New Jersey) - Summer variety of fine quality; sweet; home use.
  153. Jonathan (New York) - A well known market variety in West; does not develop perfectly in this climate.
  154. Jouveau (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  155. Julien-le-Paulmier (France) - Cions French Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  156. Jumbo (Virginia) - A large fruited, late summer variety of fair quality; has no value.
  157. Kaighns Spitzenburg (New Jersey) - A winter variety; good keeper, but of no special merit; fruit small.
  158. Kartacs - Hungarian apple; tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  159. Kecskemet - Hungarian apple; tree and cion United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  160. Kent Beauty (English) - Not fully tested. 
  161. Keswick (English) - Late summer apple, specially adapted to culinary use.
  162. Kooroochiang (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Serial No. 21,723. Not fruited.
  163. Kossuth - Trees from E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, AR. Not fully tested.
  164. Kingston Black (English) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  165. Lankford (Maryland) - An old variety, but not well known; one of our promising winter varieties; dessert and market.
  166. Late Strawberry (New York) - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, IL. Not fully tested.
  167. Laurette (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  168. Lawver (Missouri) - A winter variety that succeeds well in parts of this State. Grown here, it is under-size and poor quality.
  169. Limber Twig (North Carolina) - Well known variety; not specially adapted to this locality; subject to scab.
  170. Lily of Kent (Delaware) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not Fruited.
  171. Lincoln- Origin? Trees from T.V. Munson, Denison, Texas. Fruited, but of no special merit.
  172. Long Stem (Virginia) - Cions from G. Underhill, Fork Union, Va. Not fruited, therefore unable to determine which of the four Long Stems this is.
  173. Lord Wolseley (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,724. Not fruited.
  174. Loy - Tree from T.V. Munson, Denison, Texas; promising early winter variety.
  175. Magyar - Hungarian apple; cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Fruited, but not fully tested.
  176. Magg's Seedling (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,727. Not fruited.
  177. Maiden Blush (New Jersey) - An excellent fall apple for culinary use; not usually a heavy bearer here.
  178. Mann (New York) - A winter variety of good quality, but not very productive. Needs further testing.
  179. Marechal (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  180. Marabot (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  181. Martha - Tree from E.F. Babcock, Little Rock, Ark. Not fruited.
  182. Martin Fepard (France) - Cider apple; tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  183. Mason Orange - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  184. Mason Stranger (Virginia) - Winter variety; long keeper, but only fair quality.
  185. May of Meyers - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ill. Not fruited.
  186. McKinley (Missouri) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  187. Medaille d'Or (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  188. Melon Norton (New York) - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ill. Late bloomer. Not fruited.
  189. Metett - Hungarian apple; tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  190. Michelin (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  191. Mihalyfi- Hungarian apple; tree and cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  192. Missouri Pippin (Missouri) - A prolific bearer; fruit is undersize and only fair quality; rots on tree here.
  193. Monteige-blanc (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  194. Moore Seedling - Origin?  Tree from E.F. Babcock, Little Rock, Ark. Not fruited.
  195. Morgan Seedling (America) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,254. Not fruited.
  196. Morven - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  197. Mother (Massachusetts) - An excellent fall variety; prolific, handsome and of fine quality; best of its season.
  198. Moulin-a-Vent (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  199. Mountain Boomer - From Tennessee. Fruited sparingly. Ripens September and October; no value.
  200. Mumper (?) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  201. Nansemond (Virginia) - This variety is productive; fruits in off season, but the fruit is of very poor quality; fall and early winter.
  202. Nash (Tennessee) - Not fruited.
  203. Nero (New Jersey ?) - This variety is fairly productive and of fair quality; ripens early winter.
  204. Newby - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  205. Nickajack (Georgia) - Large, handsome fruit of fair quality; ripens fall and early winter. Not a heavy bearer.
  206. Noble Savor - Hungarian apple; cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology; resembles Y. Imperial closely.
  207. Norther Spy (New York) - A well known variety; standard sort in North, but not productive here.
  208. Nyari Vaj - Hungarian apple; trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  209. Nyari Piros - Hungarian apple; trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  210. Oblesby - Cion United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  211. Ohio Pippin (Shannon) - Not fruited.
  212. Olands Kungs (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,230. Not fruited.
  213. Omont (France) - Cions Cider apple, collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  214. Oldenburg, Duchess of (Russia) - Well known market variety; heavy bearer; ripens mid-summer; culinary use.
  215. Oramie (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,223. Not fruited.
  216. Ortley (New Jersey) - An apple of the Pippin class; not a heavy bearer; does not keep well.
  217. Oszi Vaj - Hungarian apple; trees and cions United states Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  218. Otoe (Nebraska) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  219. Ozone - (?) Trees, E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, Ark. Not fruited.
  220. Palouse - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  221. -
  222. Passe Reine (France) - Cider apple, cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited. Also from United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology.
  223. Pasman - Hungarian apple; tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited
  224. Peach Pond (New York) - Late summer variety; rots badly; no good.
  225. Peck Pleasant (Rhode Island) - Vigorous and productive; fruit large and of fine quality; early winter.
  226. Perry (Ohio) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fully tested.
  227. Petite douche Rousse (France) - Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  228. Pewaukee (Wisconsin) - Fair bearer; large fruit, but of poor quality; early winter.
  229. Pilot - Tree does not come into bearing early; fruit good size and quality.
  230. Pinnacle (America) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,255. Not fruited.
  231. Plumb Cider (Wisconsin) - A good autumn variety; bears well and fruit is of excellent quality.
  232. Ponyik - Hungarian apple; cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  233. Poppleton - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  234. Porter (Massachusetts) - Late summer or fall apple; bears sparingly, and only of fair quality; culinary use.
  235. Primate (New York) - Productive, large, fair quality; September and October.
  236. Queen (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,739. Not fruited.
  237. Ralls Genet (France) - Well known winter variety; productive; sure bearer; fair quality.
  238. Rebel - (?) Large fruited; late summer or fall variety; fairly productive and good quality.
  239. Red Astrachan (Russia) - Well known early variety; good culinary apple; quite acid; poor bearer.
  240. Red June, Carolina (North Carolina) - This well known early variety has failed to fruit well here.
  241. Reine des hatives (France) - Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  242. Reine des pommes (France) - Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  243. Reine du Cidre (France) - Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  244. Rhode Island Greening (Rhode Island) - Well known winter sort; fair bearer; fine quality and long keeper.
  245. Richland - (?) Tree from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ill. Not fruited.
  246. Ridge Pippin (Pennsylvania?) - Fairly good bearer; fruit irregular, but of fine quality, and keeps well.
  247. Ringstads (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,255. Not fruited.
  248. Rittenhouse - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  249. Robertson White (Virginia) - Has not fruited sufficiently for a conclusive note.
  250. Roger Sweet - Tree from E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, Ark. Not fruited.
  251. Rome Beauty (Ohio) - Well known winter variety; succeeds well in some parts of this State.
  252. Roquet Rouge - French Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  253. Rossignol - French Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  254. Rouge du Landel - French Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  255. Rousse - French Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  256. Rousse Latour - French Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  257. Roxbury Russet (Massachusetts) - Good bearer; fine quality. Grown here, does not keep later than December.
  258. Royal Red -Trees from E. W. Robertson, Crozet, Va. Has fruited slightly; not promising.
  259. Ruby Gem (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,740. Not fruited.
  260. Ruby Pearmain (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,741. Not fruited.
  261. Sadie's Sweet - Tree from Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ill. Needs further testing.
  262. Safstaholms (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,228. Not fruited.
  263. Saint Laurent - French Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  264. Santa Clara King (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,744. Not fruited.
  265. Saxon Priest - Hungarian apple; cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  266. Seedless (Vermont) - Trees from T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas. Fruited once; not promising.
  267. Sekula - Hungarian apple; cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  268. Selymes (Hungary) - Trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  269. Senator - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  270. Sharp Early (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,745. Not fruited.
  271. Sharp Late Red (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,746. Not fruited.
  272. Sharp Nonesuch (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,747. Not fruited.
  273. Sharp Winter - (?) Heavy and sure bearer; long keeper, but fruit of only fair quality; grows slowly.
  274. Shiawassee (Michigan) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  275. Shirk (Indiana) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  276. Shockley (Georgia) - Fair bearer, but fruit is quite small and poor in quality; long keeper.
  277. Shortman - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  278. Shroeders (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  279. Smith - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  280. Smith Cider (Pennsylvania) - Late fall variety; productive and fine quality; excellent for culinary use.
  281. Smokehouse (Pennsylvania) - Late autumn and early winter; well known variety; not heavy bearer, but fine quality.
  282. Sops of Wine (Europe?) - Late summer variety; fairly productive, but nothing to specially commend it.
  283. Stark (Ohio) - A promising mid-winter variety.
  284. Staringe (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,227. Not fruited.
  285. Stayman (Winesap) (Kansas) - New variety; not fruited here.
  286. Statesman (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,749. Not fruited.
  287. Stenkyrke (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,266. Not fruited.
  288. Stephenson (Mississippi) - Sure bearer and prolific, but poor quality; very late keeper.
  289. Steward - From T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas. Fall Apple; large; fairly productive; good quality.
  290. Strawberry Norman (English) - Cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  291. Striped Baufin (New South Wales, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,751. Not fruited.
  292. Strivestown - (?) Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  293. Stump (New York) - A Fairly productive autumn variety of fair quality.
  294. Summer Pearmain (America) - A mid-season variety of fine quality; has not fruited heavily here.
  295. Summer Rose (New Jersey) - One of the good early varieties; home and market.
  296. Summer Red - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  297. Summer Wafer (Hungary) - Cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  298. Superb Sweet - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  299. Svensk Vinterpostof (Sweden) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,224. Not fruited.
  300. Swaar (New York) - This variety has fruited but sparingly; good keeper; fairly good quality.
  301. Sweet Major (English) - Cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  302. Sweet Orange - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  303. Tolman Sweet (Rhode Island) - Old variety; fine quality; sweet; excellent for canning and preserving.
  304. Taupaki (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,754. Not fruited.
  305. Tetofski (Russia) - Heavy bearer; early summer; excellent for cooking.
  306. Tetofsky - Cions from New South Wales, Australia, through Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,756. Not fruited.
  307. Tewkesbury (New Jersey) - Late winter variety; has fruited but sparingly.
  308. Thrytz - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  309. Tompkins King (New Jersey) - Well known and excellent winter variety in North. Fruited sparingly here.
  310. Tuckor (Hungary) - Trees and cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  311. Upp - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  312. Vancouver (America) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,197. Not fruited.
  313. Vanderspiegel (Vermont) - Small winter variety of Winesap type. Not recommended.
  314. Ver (Hungary) - Cions and trees United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  315. Via - A heavy and sure bearer; fair quality; handsome; keeps till January.
  316. Vice President, Heron (France) - Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  317. Vimont (France) - Cider apple; cions collected by Alwood. Not fruited.
  318. Virginia Beauty (Virginia) - An early winter variety of fine quality and handsome appearance.
  319. Wagener (New York) - Early winter; sure bearer and good quality; fine canner; a fall apple here.
  320. Washington (New York).
  321. Wealthy (Minnesota) - Good bearer, but poor in quality; drops before maturing.
  322. Welford Yellow - Tree from J. A. Francis, Salem, Va. Not fruited.
  323. Western Beauty (Ohio) - Not fruited.
  324. Westfield Seek-no-further (Connecticut) - Large, fine, sweet apple; good bearer and excellent quality; summer.
  325. White Doctor (Pennsylvania) - Early winter variety of good quality; light bearer.
  326. White Juneating (May) (English) - Very early variety; small and poor in quality; bears well.
  327. White Pippin (America) - Early winter variety of fine quality; not a heavy bearer.
  328. White Pearmain (America) - Fruit small to medium; fine quality; light bearer; long keeper.
  329. Whitney Russet (Canada) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  330. William Anderson (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. No. 21,757. Not fruited.
  331. Williams Favorite (Massachusetts) - Fairly productive autumn variety; nothing to specially commend it.
  332. Willow Twig (Virginia?) - This is an old and well known apple; fair quality; good keeper.
  333. Winesap (New Jersey) - Well known variety; adapted to special soils; productive; of excellent quality.
  334. Winter Berkely (Virginia) - Tree from J. A. Francis, Salem, Va. Not fruited.
  335. Winter Golden - (?) Tree from E. F. Babcock, Little Rock, Ark. Not fully tested.
  336. Winter Greening - Cions Benjamin Buckman, Farmingdale, Ill. Ralls Genet type; promising.
  337. Winter Majetin (Victoria, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,758. Not fruited.
  338. Winter Sweet Paradise (Pennsylvania) - Grafts from Old Orchard Experiment Station. Not fruited.
  339. Wolf River (Wisconsin) - Large, showy apple; fairly productive, but very poor in quality.
  340. World's Wonder - See Nick-ajack.
  341. Wythe (Illinois) - Has not fruited.
  342. Yarra Bank (New South Wales, Australia) - Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology, No. 21,761. Not fruited.
  343. Yates (Georgia) - Small, inferior variety, ripening in early winter; productive.
  344. Yellow Bellflower (New Jersey) - Fall and early winter variety of fine quality, but not productive.
  345. Yellow Newtown (New York) - Well known winter variety; adapted to special soils.
  346. Yellow Transparent (Russia) - A handsome early variety of fair quality; very productive.
  347. York Imperial (Pennsylvania) - Well known variety; standard for market in many parts of the State; blights badly.

    CRAB APPLES
  348. Ampla - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  349. Atropurpurea - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology; early bearer and pretty fruit, but of little value.
  350. Blushing Maid - (?) Heavy and sure bearer, of good quality.
  351. Cerise - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  352. Cœrulescens - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  353. Elgin (Illinois) - Very small and of poor quality; very productive; late season.
  354. English - (?) Small winter Crab, of fairly good quality; keeps till January.
  355. Fastigiata - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  356. Flava - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  357. Flavescens - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  358. Hyslop (America) - Beautiful red Crab of fair quality; productive; late.
  359. Intermedia - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  360. Kaido - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Very small fruit and very poor quality.
  361. Lake Yellow - Above medium size, productive, rich and fine quality; excellent variety.
  362. Maiden Blush - Fairly good variety; rather large size; fair quality, but light bearer.
  363. Montreal Beauty - Good bearer, handsome and of fair quality, though not rich.
  364. Quaker Beauty - Good quality; only fairly productive.
  365. Queen - Very heavy bearer; showy fruit, of fair quality; medium size; late.
  366. Red Siberian (France) - Well known early variety; one of the best in quality; very productive.
  367. Serotina - Tree United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not fruited.
  368. Soulard (Missouri) - Sure bearer; fairly productive; fruit harsh, astringent.
  369. Transcendant (America) - Early variety of best quality; good bearer and showy fruit.
  370. Whitney (Illinois) - Early variety; fine quality; free from astringency and excellent for eating out of hand.

    PEARS
  371. A. 151. Cions from G. Underhill, Fork Union, Va. Not fruited.
  372. A. 407. Cions from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Mo. Not fruited.
  373. A. 411. Tree from Stark Brothers, Louisiana, Mo. Not fruited.
  374. Anjou (French) - Fall and early winter variety; fairly productive and good quality; market.
  375. Bartlett (English) - Summer variety; productive; fairly hardy; large and of fine quality; market and home.
  376. Bessemianka (Russia) - Fruited slightly; destroyed by blight.
  377. Bosc (Belgium) - Old, well known variety; productive, fairly hardy and best quality; dessert.
  378. Boussock (Belgium) - Fair bearer and good quality; late summer or fall.
  379. Buffum (Rhode Island) - Small, but of excellent quality; fine for culinary use.
  380. Carisi - (?) Cider pear; cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Not propagated.
  381. Clairgeau (France) - Unusually productive; large, handsome, but of only fair quality; coarse.
  382. Clapp Favorite (Massachusetts) - Large fruited variety, ripening in early summer; fine quality; dessert.
  383. De Navet - (?) Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Lost.
  384. De Souris - (?) Cions United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pomology. Lost.
  385. Dewey Premium - Plant from D. O. Munson, Falls Church, Va. Not fruited.
  386. Easter Beurre (Europe) - Old winter variety; poor in quality; very subject to blight.
  387. Elizabeth, Manning's (Belgium) - Early variety of small size, but good quality.
  388. Flemish Beauty (Belgium) - Late summer or fall variety; poor quality; subject to blight.
  389. Howell (Connecticut) - Large mid-season pear of only fair quality; light bearer here.
  390. Idaho - Large mid-summer variety of fair quality; very subject to blight.
  391. Keiffer (Pennsylvania) - Well known market variety; fair quality; very productive and hardy.
  392. Lawrence (New York) - An old and well known winter variety; productive; fine quality and late keeper.
  393. Lawson (New York) - Early variety of medium size; rather poor quality; no value.
  394. Leconte (America) - Hybrid pear; poor quality, but quite productive; very subject to blight.
  395. Lincoln Coreless (Illinois) - This variety has not fruited here.
  396. Louise Bonne de Jersey (France) - An old variety; bears well; fair quality
  397. Lucrative Belle (Flem.) - Old variety; fine quality; dessert.
  398. Malines, Josephine de (Belgium) - Late variety of fine quality; dessert.
  399. Marguerite, Petite (France) - Small but handsome pear of fine quality; ripens early; dessert.
  400. Maury - Trees from W. Gordon Merrick, Glendower, Va. Not fruited.
  401. Osband, Summer (New York) - Small fruited; early variety of fine quality; not a heavy bearer.
  402. Pound (Europe) - Winter variety; poor quality; not productive.
  403. Rutter (Pennsylvania) - Late summer or autumn variety; large; fair quality.
  404. Seckel (Pennsylvania) - Well known variety; highly prized for its fine quality; dessert and culinary use.
  405. Sheldon (New York) - Productive; handsome; medium to large, and good quality; fine for market.
  406. Souvenir du Congress (France) - Large, beautiful fruit, of fair quality; nothing to specially commend it.
  407. Summer Doyenne (Doyenne d'Ete) (Belgium) - Old and well known variety; very early; small; fair quality; quite productive.
  408. Superfin (France) - Early and of the very best quality; excellent for dessert.
  409. Tyson (Pennsylvania) - Mid-summer variety; fairly productive; good size and fine quality.
  410. Vicar of Winkfield (France) - Shows no qualities here worthy of mention.
  411. White Doyenne (France) - Late variety; productive and of excellent quality; dessert.
  412. Wilder Early (New York) - Early; good size; handsome; fair quality; very subject to blight.

    QUINCE
  413. Angers - Worthless, except for nursery stocks.
  414. Champion (America) - Large and handsome; good bearer.
  415. Orange (Apple) (America) - Old, well known variety.
  416. Rea (New York) - A fine variety, of good quality and quite productive.
Files
Handy Apple Tree - 1900   3.8 MB  
Larger image of the Handy apple tree in Patrick County, Virginia.
Story of the Handy Apple Tree - 1900   865.0 kB  
Commissioner of Agriculture Report of the Handy Apple from 1900.
Handy Apple Tree - 1913   1007.1 kB  
A photograph from the 1913 Virginia Horticultural Society report of the Handy Apple tree.
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Big VIrginia Apples!

How big were apple trees at the turn of the last century?

 

Many old timers talk about the size of apple trees during their childhood. Self-proclaimed modern day experts often disagree with statements that apple trees in those days could get much over 30 feet in height. In commercial orchards during the 1920s the trees were generally 30 to 40 feet in height. But this was not the case with all apple trees. The Albemarle Pippin was Virginia's most important apple and Pippins grown in Virginia were much more valuable and popular for export than Pippins grown elsewhere. A large tree could produce over $100 worth of apples in a season. Many trees on a property made a grower quite wealthy. It was not uncommon for large Pippin trees to grow over 40 feet in height. The Handy apple, an Albemarle Pippin, was one of the largest apple trees known, perhaps in the United States. This tree was documented in the 1900 Commissioner of Agriculture Report for Virginia and later in the 1913 Report of the Virginia Horticultural Society. The tree was located about seven miles from Stuart, Virginia in Patrick County. The Handy apple tree measured nine feet five inches around the trunk. Five feet from the ground it had four prongs, the largest being six feet round; the next, five feet four inches; the next, five feet; the smallest, four feet five inches. It was fifty-two feet high and seventy-one feet broad. The tree was named after Mr. Sparrel Handy, who owned the land where it grew. In the 1913 horticultural society report, Col. M. V. Stedman of Stuart, Patirck County, VA wrote that the tree was an Albemarle Pippin that was one of the largest and oldest apple trees in the world. It was planted by his great-grandfather 119 years earlier (1794). In the Commissioner's report, the story of the tree was that it was planted by a hunter 75 years earlier in an exceedingly rich soil in a cove of Rocky Mountain. The yield of this tree at one point was one hundred and ten bushels a year. Col. Steadman reported that the tree had yielded 162 bushels in a single year. In another year it was reported that the apples were used to make 80 gallons of apple brandy. This corresponds with the commissioner's report that it was a winter apple, not a first-rate eating apple, but was dried and used to make brandy. Albemarle Pippins were winter apples, but they were never disappointing as an eating apple. Patrick county was well known for its very large apple trees. The commissioner's report was based on a letter from: Powhatan Bouldin, Marion, VA, Oct. 17, 1900 to the Virginia Commissioner of Agriculture.

 

Handy Apple - 1900

Handy Apple - Patrick County, VA - 1900

 

A larger image of the Handy Apple tree and a copy of the original story from the 1900 Commissioner of Agriculture Report is included under files below (center column article).

 
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